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Exposure science and its places in environmental health sciences and risk assessment: why is its application still an ongoing struggle in 2014?

Paul J. Lioy, Ph.D. - 3 hours 35 min ago

Exposure science and its places in environmental health sciences and risk assessment: why is its application still an ongoing struggle in 2014?

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2015 Jan;25(1):1-3

Authors: Lioy PJ

PMID: 25515539 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

N (ω)-NITRO-N (ω')-SUBSTITUTED GUANIDINES: A SIMPLE CLASS OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITORS.

Jeffrey D. Laskin, Ph.D. - 3 hours 35 min ago

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N (ω)-NITRO-N (ω')-SUBSTITUTED GUANIDINES: A SIMPLE CLASS OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITORS.

Mod Res Inflamm. 2014 May;3(2):48-58

Authors: Guillon CD, Wisnoski DD, Saxena J, Heindel ND, Heck DE, Wolff DJ, Laskin JD

Abstract
A series of N(ω)-nitro-N(ω')-substituted guanidines has been prepared as potential inhibitors of the human Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) isoforms. The reported utility of aminoguanidine and nitroarginine in iNOS inhibition points to a potential similar utility for analogs of nitro-guanidine. The compound library was tested against the three isoforms of Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS). Several candidates showed excellent activity and good selectivity for nNOS. One particular compound even demonstrated good selectivity for iNOS. The potential usefulness of such selective inhibitors is discussed.

PMID: 25360396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

PandemicFlu.gov - Fri, 12/19/2014 - 15:00

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

Categories: Government Agency News

Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

Paul J. Lioy, Ph.D. - Wed, 12/17/2014 - 15:00

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Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Nov 19;47(22):13077-85

Authors: Zhang J, Nazarenko Y, Zhang L, Calderon L, Lee KB, Garfunkel E, Schwander S, Tetley TD, Chung KF, Porter AE, Ryan M, Kipen H, Lioy PJ, Mainelis G

Abstract
Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

PMID: 24144266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members