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Changing trends in phthalate exposures.

Paul J. Lioy, Ph.D. - 2 min 39 sec ago

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Changing trends in phthalate exposures.

Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Oct 1;122(10):A264

Authors: Lioy PJ, Gennings C, Hauser R, Koch HM, Kortenkamp A

PMID: 25272327 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats.

Jeffrey D. Laskin, Ph.D. - 2 min 40 sec ago

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Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014 Aug 15;279(1):43-52

Authors: Zheng R, Dragomir AC, Mishin V, Richardson JR, Heck DE, Laskin DL, Laskin JD

Abstract
The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress.

PMID: 24832492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

PandemicFlu.gov - Mon, 10/20/2014 - 14:00

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

Categories: Government Agency News

Hospital disaster preparedness in Switzerland

Environmental/Disaster News - Mon, 10/20/2014 - 02:00

Swiss Medical Weekly