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Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.

Paul J. Lioy, Ph.D. - 6 hours 36 min ago

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Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2014 Oct 22;

Authors: Pavilonis BT, Lioy PJ, Guazzetti S, Bostick BC, Donna F, Peli M, Zimmerman NJ, Bertrand P, Lucas E, Smith DR, Georgopoulos PG, Mi Z, Royce SG, Lucchini RG

Abstract
Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600 μg/g) and indoor dust (870 μg/g) collected within 0.5 km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0 km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.70.

PMID: 25335867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

Pentoxifylline attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced acute lung injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Jeffrey D. Laskin, Ph.D. - 6 hours 36 min ago

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Pentoxifylline attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced acute lung injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Aug;97(1):89-98

Authors: Sunil VR, Vayas KN, Cervelli JA, Malaviya R, Hall L, Massa CB, Gow AJ, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic alkylating agent that causes damage to the respiratory tract. Evidence suggests that macrophages and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α contribute to pulmonary injury. Pentoxifylline is a TNFα inhibitor known to suppress inflammation. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of pentoxifylline to mitigate NM-induced lung injury and inflammation. Exposure of male Wistar rats (150-174 g; 8-10 weeks) to NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in severe histopathological changes in the lung within 3d of exposure, along with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number and protein, indicating inflammation and alveolar-epithelial barrier dysfunction. This was associated with increases in oxidative stress proteins including lipocalin (Lcn)2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung, along with pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic (COX-2(+) and MMP-9(+)), and anti-inflammatory/wound repair (CD163+ and Gal-3(+)) macrophages. Treatment of rats with pentoxifylline (46.7 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3d beginning 15 min after NM significantly reduced NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, as measured histologically and by decreases in BAL cell and protein content, and levels of HO-1 and Lcn2. Macrophages expressing COX-2 and MMP-9 also decreased after pentoxifylline, while CD163+ and Gal-3(+) macrophages increased. This was correlated with persistent upregulation of markers of wound repair including pro-surfactant protein-C and proliferating nuclear cell antigen by Type II cells. NM-induced lung injury and inflammation were associated with alterations in the elastic properties of the lung, however these were largely unaltered by pentoxifylline. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may be useful in treating acute lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by vesicants.

PMID: 24886962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

PandemicFlu.gov - 6 hours 36 min ago

The World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Vaccine Composition for the 2011-2012 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

Categories: Government Agency News

New Mexico Severe Storms and Flooding

FEMA Disaster Declarations - Wed, 10/29/2014 - 09:10

Major Disaster Declaration number 4199 issued Wed, 10/29/2014 - 09:00

Categories: Government Agency News